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Hence, such objects would probably be ejected from the vicinity of the Milky Way. Both gravitational microlensing and planetary transit observations indicate that there may be at least as many planets bound to stars as there are stars in the Milky Way,   and microlensing measurements indicate that there are more rogue planets not bound to host stars than there are stars.
In June , astronomers from the University of Nottingham reported the possible existence of over 30 "active communicating intelligent civilizations", or Communicating Extra-Terrestrial Intelligent CETI civilizations none within our current ability to detect due to various reasons including distance or size in our own Milky Way galaxy, based on the latest astrophysical information.
The Milky Way consists of a bar-shaped core region surrounded by a warped disk of gas, dust and stars. A galactic quadrant, or quadrant of the Milky Way, refers to one of four circular sectors in the division of the Milky Way.
In astronomical practice, the delineation of the galactic quadrants is based upon the galactic coordinate system , which places the Sun as the origin of the mapping system.
This value is estimated using geometric -based methods or by measuring selected astronomical objects that serve as standard candles , with different techniques yielding various values within this approximate range.
Viewed from the Andromeda Galaxy, it would be the brightest feature of the Milky Way. In , two gigantic spherical bubbles of high energy emission were detected to the north and the south of the Milky Way core, using data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
The diameter of each of the bubbles is about 25, light-years 7. Outside the gravitational influence of the Galactic bar, the structure of the interstellar medium and stars in the disk of the Milky Way is organized into four spiral arms.
The Milky Way's spiral structure is uncertain, and there is currently no consensus on the nature of the Milky Way's spiral arms.
Two spiral arms, the Scutum—Centaurus arm and the Carina—Sagittarius arm, have tangent points inside the Sun's orbit about the center of the Milky Way.
If these arms contain an overdensity of stars compared to the average density of stars in the Galactic disk, it would be detectable by counting the stars near the tangent point.
The rest of the arms contain excess gas but not excess old stars. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy is unclear. The Near 3 kpc Arm also called Expanding 3 kpc Arm or simply 3 kpc Arm was discovered in the s by astronomer van Woerden and collaborators through centimeter radio measurements of HI atomic hydrogen.
It is located in the fourth galactic quadrant at a distance of about 5. It is located in the first galactic quadrant at a distance of 3 kpc about 10, ly from the Galactic Center.
A simulation published in suggested that the Milky Way may have obtained its spiral arm structure as a result of repeated collisions with the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy.
It has been suggested that the Milky Way contains two different spiral patterns: an inner one, formed by the Sagittarius arm, that rotates fast and an outer one, formed by the Carina and Perseus arms, whose rotation velocity is slower and whose arms are tightly wound.
In this scenario, suggested by numerical simulations of the dynamics of the different spiral arms, the outer pattern would form an outer pseudoring ,  and the two patterns would be connected by the Cygnus arm.
Outside of the major spiral arms is the Monoceros Ring or Outer Ring , a ring of gas and stars torn from other galaxies billions of years ago.
However, several members of the scientific community recently restated their position affirming the Monoceros structure is nothing more than an over-density produced by the flared and warped thick disk of the Milky Way.
Although the disk contains dust that obscures the view in some wavelengths, the halo component does not.
Active star formation takes place in the disk especially in the spiral arms, which represent areas of high density , but does not take place in the halo, as there is little cool gas to collapse into stars.
Discoveries in the early 21st century have added dimension to the knowledge of the Milky Way's structure.
With the discovery that the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy M31 extends much farther than previously thought,  the possibility of the disk of the Milky Way extending farther is apparent, and this is supported by evidence from the discovery of the Outer Arm extension of the Cygnus Arm   and of a similar extension of the Scutum—Centaurus Arm.
Similarly, with the discovery of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy , it was found that a ring of galactic debris from its interaction with the Milky Way encircles the Galactic disk.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky shows a huge and diffuse structure spread out across an area around 5, times the size of a full moon within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models.
The collection of stars rises close to perpendicular to the plane of the spiral arms of the Milky Way. The proposed likely interpretation is that a dwarf galaxy is merging with the Milky Way.
In addition to the stellar halo, the Chandra X-ray Observatory , XMM-Newton , and Suzaku have provided evidence that there is a gaseous halo with a large amount of hot gas.
The halo extends for hundreds of thousand of light-years, much farther than the stellar halo and close to the distance of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.
The mass of this hot halo is nearly equivalent to the mass of the Milky Way itself. Observations of distant galaxies indicate that the Universe had about one-sixth as much baryonic ordinary matter as dark matter when it was just a few billion years old.
However, only about half of those baryons are accounted for in the modern Universe based on observations of nearby galaxies like the Milky Way.
Boehle and associates found a smaller value of There are about stars brighter than absolute magnitude 8. This illustrates the fact that there are far more faint stars than bright stars: in the entire sky, there are about stars brighter than apparent magnitude 4 but The apex of the Sun's way, or the solar apex , is the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way.
The general direction of the Sun's Galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Hercules , at an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center.
The Sun's orbit about the Milky Way is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the Galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions.
In addition, the Sun passes through the Galactic plane approximately 2. These oscillations were until recently thought to coincide with mass lifeform extinction periods on Earth.
At this speed, it takes around 1, years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU astronomical unit.
The stars and gas in the Milky Way rotate about its center differentially , meaning that the rotation period varies with location.
As is typical for spiral galaxies, the orbital speed of most stars in the Milky Way does not depend strongly on their distance from the center. This is unlike the situation within the Solar System, where two-body gravitational dynamics dominate, and different orbits have significantly different velocities associated with them.
The rotation curve shown in the figure describes this rotation. Toward the center of the Milky Way the orbit speeds are too low, whereas beyond 7 kpcs the speeds are too high to match what would be expected from the universal law of gravitation.
If the Milky Way contained only the mass observed in stars, gas, and other baryonic ordinary matter, the rotation speed would decrease with distance from the center.
However, the observed curve is relatively flat, indicating that there is additional mass that cannot be detected directly with electromagnetic radiation.
This inconsistency is attributed to dark matter. Alternatively, a minority of astronomers propose that a modification of the law of gravity may explain the observed rotation curve.
The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Nearly half the matter in the Milky Way may have come from other distant galaxies.
Within a few billion years of the birth of the first stars, the mass of the Milky Way was large enough so that it was spinning relatively quickly.
Due to conservation of angular momentum , this led the gaseous interstellar medium to collapse from a roughly spheroidal shape to a disk.
Therefore, later generations of stars formed in this spiral disk. Most younger stars, including the Sun, are observed to be in the disk.
Since the first stars began to form, the Milky Way has grown through both galaxy mergers particularly early in the Milky Way's growth and accretion of gas directly from the Galactic halo.
Direct accretion of gas is observed in high-velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud. This lack of recent major mergers is unusual among similar spiral galaxies; its neighbour the Andromeda Galaxy appears to have a more typical history shaped by more recent mergers with relatively large galaxies.
According to recent studies, the Milky Way as well as the Andromeda Galaxy lie in what in the galaxy color—magnitude diagram is known as the "green valley", a region populated by galaxies in transition from the "blue cloud" galaxies actively forming new stars to the "red sequence" galaxies that lack star formation.
Star-formation activity in green valley galaxies is slowing as they run out of star-forming gas in the interstellar medium. In simulated galaxies with similar properties, star formation will typically have been extinguished within about five billion years from now, even accounting for the expected, short-term increase in the rate of star formation due to the collision between both the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy.
Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way. The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium and uranium , then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology.
These yield values of about By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made.
With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of In November , astronomers reported the discovery of one of the oldest stars in the universe.
About The discovery of the star in the Milky Way galaxy suggests that the galaxy may be at least 3 billion years older than previously thought. Several individual stars have been found in the Milky Way's halo with measured ages very close to the In , a star in the galactic halo, HE , was estimated to be about As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.
The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes , from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.
According to observations utilizing adaptive optics to correct for Earth's atmospheric distortion, stars in the galaxy's bulge date to about The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology.
Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.
The satellite galaxies surrounding the Milky way are not randomly distributed but seemed to be the result of a break-up of some larger system producing a ring structure , light-years in diameter and 50, light-years wide.
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group , surrounded by a Local Void, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Surrounding the Virgo Supercluster are a number of voids, devoid of many galaxies, the Microscopium Void to the "north", the Sculptor Void to the "left", the Bootes Void to the "right" and the Canes-Major Void to the South.
These voids change shape over time, creating filamentous structures of galaxies. The Virgo Supercluster, for instance, is being drawn towards the Great Attractor ,  which in turn forms part of a greater structure, called Laniakea.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 14, light-years.
It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way.
The smallest dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way are only light-years in diameter. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies that are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, which is supported by the detection of nine new satellites of the Milky Way in a relatively small patch of the night sky in In researchers reported that most satellite galaxies of the Milky Way lie in a very large disk and orbit in the same direction.
This discrepancy is still not fully explained. In January , researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they orbit the Milky Way, causing vibrations when they pass through its edges.
However, in a computer model, the movement of these two galaxies creates a dark matter wake that amplifies their influence on the larger Milky Way.
In 3 to 4 billion years, there may be an Andromeda—Milky Way collision , depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion.
If they collide, the chance of individual stars colliding with each other is extremely low, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy or perhaps a large disk galaxy  over the course of about a billion years.
Although special relativity states that there is no "preferred" inertial frame of reference in space with which to compare the Milky Way, the Milky Way does have a velocity with respect to cosmological frames of reference.
One such frame of reference is the Hubble flow , the apparent motions of galaxy clusters due to the expansion of space.
Individual galaxies, including the Milky Way, have peculiar velocities relative to the average flow. Thus, to compare the Milky Way to the Hubble flow, one must consider a volume large enough so that the expansion of the Universe dominates over local, random motions.
A large enough volume means that the mean motion of galaxies within this volume is equal to the Hubble flow. Another reference frame is provided by the cosmic microwave background CMB.
In western culture, the name "Milky Way" is derived from its appearance as a dim un-resolved "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky. In Greek mythology , the Milky Way was formed after the trickster god Hermes suckled the infant Heracles at the breast of Hera , the queen of the gods, while she was asleep.
The Milky Way, or "milk circle", was just one of 11 "circles" the Greeks identified in the sky, others being the zodiac , the meridian , the horizon , the equator , the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn , Arctic and Antarctic circles , and two colure circles passing through both poles.
In his view, the Milky Way is celestial. This idea would be influential later in the Islamic world. Because of this, it was likened to milk in color.
Proof of the Milky Way consisting of many stars came in when Galileo Galilei used a telescope to study the Milky Way and discovered that it is composed of a huge number of faint stars.
Wright and Kant also conjectured that some of the nebulae visible in the night sky might be separate "galaxies" themselves, similar to our own.
Kant referred to both the Milky Way and the "extragalactic nebulae" as "island universes", a term still current up to the s.
The first attempt to describe the shape of the Milky Way and the position of the Sun within it was carried out by William Herschel in by carefully counting the number of stars in different regions of the visible sky.
He produced a diagram of the shape of the Milky Way with the Solar System close to the center. In , Lord Rosse constructed a new telescope and was able to distinguish between elliptical and spiral-shaped nebulae.
He also managed to make out individual point sources in some of these nebulae, lending credence to Kant's earlier conjecture.
In , studying the proper motions of stars, Jacobus Kapteyn reported that these were not random, as it was believed in that time; stars could be divided into two streams, moving in nearly opposite directions.
Searching the photographic record, he found 11 more novae. Curtis noticed that these novae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than those that occurred within the Milky Way.
As a result, he was able to come up with a distance estimate of , parsecs. He became a proponent of the "island universes" hypothesis, which held that the spiral nebulae were independent galaxies.
To support his claim that the Great Andromeda Nebula is an external galaxy, Curtis noted the appearance of dark lanes resembling the dust clouds in the Milky Way, as well as the significant Doppler shift.
The controversy was conclusively settled by Edwin Hubble in the early s using the Mount Wilson observatory 2. With the light-gathering power of this new telescope, he was able to produce astronomical photographs that resolved the outer parts of some spiral nebulae as collections of individual stars.
He was also able to identify some Cepheid variables that he could use as a benchmark to estimate the distance to the nebulae. He found that the Andromeda Nebula is , parsecs from the Sun, far too distant to be part of the Milky Way.
The ESA spacecraft Gaia provides distance estimates by determining the parallax of a billion stars and is mapping the Milky Way with four planned releases of maps in , , and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the galaxy. For other uses, see Milky Way disambiguation. Spiral galaxy containing our Solar System.
Parts of this article those related to diameter, tighten range? Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
March The Galactic Center as seen from Earth 's night sky the laser creates a guide-star for the telescope. Play media.
Further information: Exoplanet. New view of the Milky Way with four clearly defined and symmetric spiral arms . Artist's conception of the spiral structure of the Milky Way with two major stellar arms and a bar .
Main article: Galactic quadrant. Main article: Galactic Center. Further information: Spiral galaxy.
Diagram of the Sun's location in the Milky Way, the angles represent longitudes in the galactic coordinate system. Main article: Galaxy formation and evolution.
Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way. The position of the Local Group within the Laniakea Supercluster.
Main article: Local Group. Astronomy portal. Pasachoff in his textbook Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe states the term Milky Way should refer exclusively to the band of light that the galaxy forms in the night sky , while the galaxy should receive the full name Milky Way Galaxy ; however, this does not reflect a firm consensus in the astronomical community.
See: Pasachoff, Jay M. Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Harcourt School. Combined with a color index of 0.
Note that determining the absolute magnitude of the Milky Way is very difficult, because Earth is inside it.
Chandra X-ray Observatory. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. January 6, Archived from the original on March 17, Retrieved May 20, Space Science Reviews.
Bibcode : SSRv.. Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved May 30, Archived from the original on March 24, Retrieved March 27, Universe Today.
Archived from the original on September 24, Retrieved November 28, The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review. March 17, The Huffington Post.
Archived from the original on August 1, Retrieved June 9, July Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. February 11, The Astrophysical Journal.
Bibcode : ApJ We live on a planet called Earth that is part of our solar system. But where is our solar system? A galaxy is a huge collection of gas, dust, and billions of stars and their solar systems.
A galaxy is held together by gravity. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, also has a supermassive black hole is the biggest kind of black hole.
Its gravity is more than a million times stronger than our sun's. It has very strong gravity that pulls in everything around it.
Photo by Ian Norman. There are many galaxies besides ours, though. The The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in It orbits Earth and takes amazing pictures of stars, planets, and other galaxies.Noch kein Bewertungsergebnis vorhanden Internet Kostenlos! Haustiere Kostenlos! Vielen Dank! Schlafzimmer Wecker. Hells Angels Mongols Fight Snow Artikel auf Lager.