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It wasn't called that. It was spelled 'J-A-S-S'. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies.
Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over years, from ragtime to the rock -infused fusion.
Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music. But critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader,  defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music"  and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as 'swing ' ".
Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, improvising, group interaction, developing an 'individual voice', and being open to different musical possibilities".
Duke Ellington , one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music. Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements.
The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues , a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations.
These work songs were commonly structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was also improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score , with less attention given to interpretation, ornamentation, and accompaniment.
The classical performer's goal is to play the composition as it was written. In contrast, jazz is often characterized by the product of interaction and collaboration, placing less value on the contribution of the composer, if there is one, and more on the performer.
Depending on the performer's mood, experience, and interaction with band members or audience members, the performer may change melodies, harmonies, and time signatures.
In early Dixieland , a. New Orleans jazz, performers took turns playing melodies and improvising countermelodies. In the swing era of the s—'40s, big bands relied more on arrangements which were written or learned by ear and memorized.
Soloists improvised within these arrangements. In the bebop era of the s, big bands gave way to small groups and minimal arrangements in which the melody was stated briefly at the beginning and most of the song was improvised.
Modal jazz abandoned chord progressions to allow musicians to improvise even more. In many forms of jazz, a soloist is supported by a rhythm section of one or more chordal instruments piano, guitar , double bass, and drums.
The rhythm section plays chords and rhythms that outline the song structure and complement the soloist.
Since the emergence of bebop, forms of jazz that are commercially oriented or influenced by popular music have been criticized. According to Bruce Johnson, there has always been a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form".
An alternative view is that jazz can absorb and transform diverse musical styles. For some African Americans, jazz has drawn attention to African-American contributions to culture and history.
For others, jazz is a reminder of "an oppressive and racist society and restrictions on their artistic visions".
Papa Jack Laine , who ran the Reliance band in New Orleans in the s, was called "the father of white jazz". Others from Chicago such as Benny Goodman and Gene Krupa became leading members of swing during the s.
These musicians helped change attitudes toward race in the U. Female jazz performers and composers have contributed to jazz throughout its history.
Women began playing instruments in jazz in the early s, drawing particular recognition on piano. When male jazz musicians were drafted during World War II, many all-female bands replaced them.
Women were members of the big bands of Woody Herman and Gerald Wilson. Beginning in the s, many women jazz instrumentalists were prominent, some sustaining long careers.
Some of the most distinctive improvisers, composers, and bandleaders in jazz have been women. Jazz originated in the lateth to earlyth century as interpretations of American and European classical music entwined with African and slave folk songs and the influences of West African culture.
By the 18th century, slaves in the New Orleans area gathered socially at a special market, in an area which later became known as Congo Square, famous for its African dances.
By , the Atlantic slave trade had brought nearly , Africans to North America. An account says that they were making strange music Creole on an equally strange variety of 'instruments'—washboards, washtubs, jugs, boxes beaten with sticks or bones and a drum made by stretching skin over a flour-barrel.
Robert Palmer said of percussive slave music:. Usually such music was associated with annual festivals, when the year's crop was harvested and several days were set aside for celebration.
As late as , a traveler in North Carolina saw dancers dressed in costumes that included horned headdresses and cow tails and heard music provided by a sheepskin-covered "gumbo box", apparently a frame drum; triangles and jawbones furnished the auxiliary percussion.
There are quite a few [accounts] from the southeastern states and Louisiana dating from the period — Some of the earliest [Mississippi] Delta settlers came from the vicinity of New Orleans, where drumming was never actively discouraged for very long and homemade drums were used to accompany public dancing until the outbreak of the Civil War.
Another influence came from the harmonic style of hymns of the church, which black slaves had learned and incorporated into their own music as spirituals.
However, as Gerhard Kubik points out, whereas the spirituals are homophonic , rural blues and early jazz "was largely based on concepts of heterophony.
During the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments, particularly the violin, which they used to parody European dance music in their own cakewalk dances.
In turn, European-American minstrel show performers in blackface popularized the music internationally, combining syncopation with European harmonic accompaniment.
In the mids the white New Orleans composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk adapted slave rhythms and melodies from Cuba and other Caribbean islands into piano salon music.
The Black Codes outlawed drumming by slaves, which meant that African drumming traditions were not preserved in North America, unlike in Cuba, Haiti, and elsewhere in the Caribbean.
African-based rhythmic patterns were retained in the United States in large part through "body rhythms" such as stomping, clapping, and patting juba dancing.
In the opinion of jazz historian Ernest Borneman , what preceded New Orleans jazz before was "Afro-Latin music", similar to what was played in the Caribbean at the time.
Tresillo shown below is the most basic and most prevalent duple-pulse rhythmic cell in sub-Saharan African music traditions and the music of the African Diaspora.
Tresillo is heard prominently in New Orleans second line music and in other forms of popular music from that city from the turn of the 20th century to present.
In the post-Civil War period after , African Americans were able to obtain surplus military bass drums, snare drums and fifes, and an original African-American drum and fife music emerged, featuring tresillo and related syncopated rhythmic figures.
African-American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban rhythmic motifs in the 19th century when the habanera Cuban contradanza gained international popularity.
John Storm Roberts states that the musical genre habanera "reached the U. Habaneras were widely available as sheet music and were the first written music which was rhythmically based on an African motif New Orleans native Louis Moreau Gottschalk 's piano piece "Ojos Criollos Danse Cubaine " was influenced by the composer's studies in Cuba: the habanera rhythm is clearly heard in the left hand.
Jelly Roll Morton called the rhythmic figure the Spanish tinge and considered it an essential ingredient of jazz.
The abolition of slavery in led to new opportunities for the education of freed African Americans. Although strict segregation limited employment opportunities for most blacks, many were able to find work in entertainment.
Black musicians were able to provide entertainment in dances, minstrel shows , and in vaudeville , during which time many marching bands were formed.
Black pianists played in bars, clubs, and brothels, as ragtime developed. Ragtime appeared as sheet music, popularized by African-American musicians such as the entertainer Ernest Hogan , whose hit songs appeared in Two years later, Vess Ossman recorded a medley of these songs as a banjo solo known as "Rag Time Medley".
Classically trained pianist Scott Joplin produced his " Original Rags " in and, in , had an international hit with " Maple Leaf Rag ", a multi- strain ragtime march with four parts that feature recurring themes and a bass line with copious seventh chords.
Its structure was the basis for many other rags, and the syncopations in the right hand, especially in the transition between the first and second strain, were novel at the time.
African-based rhythmic patterns such as tresillo and its variants, the habanera rhythm and cinquillo , are heard in the ragtime compositions of Joplin and Turpin.
Joplin's "Solace" is generally considered to be in the habanera genre:   both of the pianist's hands play in a syncopated fashion, completely abandoning any sense of a march rhythm.
Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre,  which originated in African-American communities of primarily the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th century from their spirituals , work songs , field hollers , shouts and chants and rhymed simple narrative ballads.
The African use of pentatonic scales contributed to the development of blue notes in blues and jazz.
Many of the rural blues of the Deep South are stylistically an extension and merger of basically two broad accompanied song-style traditions in the west central Sudanic belt:.
Handy became interested in folk blues of the Deep South while traveling through the Mississippi Delta. In this folk blues form, the singer would improvise freely within a limited melodic range, sounding like a field holler, and the guitar accompaniment was slapped rather than strummed, like a small drum which responded in syncopated accents, functioning as another "voice".
The primitive southern Negro, as he sang, was sure to bear down on the third and seventh tone of the scale, slurring between major and minor.
Whether in the cotton field of the Delta or on the Levee up St. Louis way, it was always the same. Till then, however, I had never heard this slur used by a more sophisticated Negro, or by any white man.
I tried to convey this effect The publication of his " Memphis Blues " sheet music in introduced the bar blues to the world although Gunther Schuller argues that it is not really a blues, but "more like a cakewalk" .
This composition, as well as his later " St. Louis Blues " and others, included the habanera rhythm,  and would become jazz standards.
Handy's music career began in the pre-jazz era and contributed to the codification of jazz through the publication of some of the first jazz sheet music.
The music of New Orleans had a profound effect on the creation of early jazz. In New Orleans, slaves could practice elements of their culture such as voodoo and playing drums.
The instruments used by marching bands and dance bands became the instruments of jazz: brass, drums, and reeds tuned in the European tone scale.
Small bands contained a combination of self-taught and formally educated musicians, many from the funeral procession tradition.
These bands traveled in black communities in the deep south. Beginning in , Creole and African-American musicians played in vaudeville shows which carried jazz to cities in the northern and western parts of the U.
In New Orleans, a white bandleader named Papa Jack Laine integrated blacks and whites in his marching band. He was known as "the father of white jazz" because of the many top players he employed, such as George Brunies , Sharkey Bonano , and future members of the Original Dixieland Jass Band.
During the early s, jazz was mostly performed in African-American and mulatto communities due to segregation laws.
Storyville brought jazz to a wider audience through tourists who visited the port city of New Orleans.
Louis Armstrong started his career in Storyville  and found success in Chicago. Storyville was shut down by the U.
Cornetist Buddy Bolden played in New Orleans from to No recordings by him exist. His band is credited with creating the big four: the first syncopated bass drum pattern to deviate from the standard on-the-beat march.
Beginning in , he toured with vaudeville shows to southern cities, Chicago, and New York City. In , he composed " Jelly Roll Blues ", which became the first jazz arrangement in print when it was published in In introduced more musicians to the New Orleans style.
In fact, if you can't manage to put tinges of Spanish in your tunes, you will never be able to get the right seasoning, I call it, for jazz.
An excerpt of "New Orleans Blues" is shown below. In the excerpt, the left hand plays the tresillo rhythm, while the right hand plays variations on cinquillo.
Morton was a crucial innovator in the evolution from the early jazz form known as ragtime to jazz piano , and could perform pieces in either style; in , Morton made a series of recordings for the Library of Congress in which he demonstrated the difference between the two styles.
Morton's solos, however, were still close to ragtime, and were not merely improvisations over chord changes as in later jazz, but his use of the blues was of equal importance.
Morton loosened ragtime's rigid rhythmic feeling, decreasing its embellishments and employing a swing feeling. An oft quoted definition of swing by Louis Armstrong is: "if you don't feel it, you'll never know it.
Swing defies analysis; claims to its presence may inspire arguments. This aspect of swing is far more prevalent in African-American music than in Afro-Caribbean music.
One aspect of swing, which is heard in more rhythmically complex Diaspora musics, places strokes in-between the triple and duple-pulse "grids".
New Orleans brass bands are a lasting influence, contributing horn players to the world of professional jazz with the distinct sound of the city whilst helping black children escape poverty.
Like Jelly Roll Morton, Armstrong is also credited with the abandonment of ragtime's stiffness in favor of swung notes. Armstrong, perhaps more than any other musician, codified the rhythmic technique of swing in jazz and broadened the jazz solo vocabulary.
The Original Dixieland Jass Band made the music's first recordings early in , and their " Livery Stable Blues " became the earliest released jazz record.
Johnson 's development of stride piano playing, in which the right hand plays the melody, while the left hand provides the rhythm and bassline.
In Ohio and elsewhere in the mid-west the major influence was ragtime, until about Around , when the four-string banjo and saxophone came in, musicians began to improvise the melody line, but the harmony and rhythm remained unchanged.
A contemporary account states that blues could only be heard in jazz in the gut-bucket cabarets, which were generally looked down upon by the Black middle-class.
From to , Prohibition in the United States banned the sale of alcoholic drinks, resulting in illicit speakeasies which became lively venues of the "Jazz Age", hosting popular music, dance songs, novelty songs, and show tunes.
Jazz began to get a reputation as immoral, and many members of the older generations saw it as a threat to the old cultural values by promoting the decadent values of the Roaring 20s.
Henry van Dyke of Princeton University wrote, " It's merely an irritation of the nerves of hearing, a sensual teasing of the strings of physical passion.
Bix Beiderbecke formed The Wolverines in Despite its Southern black origins, there was a larger market for jazzy dance music played by white orchestras.
In , Paul Whiteman and his orchestra became a hit in San Francisco. He signed a contract with Victor and became the top bandleader of the s, giving hot jazz a white component, hiring white musicians such as Bix Beiderbecke , Jimmy Dorsey , Tommy Dorsey , Frankie Trumbauer , and Joe Venuti.
In , Whiteman commissioned George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue , which was premiered by his orchestra.
Jazz began to be recognized as a notable musical form. Olin Downes , reviewing the concert in The New York Times , wrote, "This composition shows extraordinary talent, as it shows a young composer with aims that go far beyond those of his ilk, struggling with a form of which he is far from being master.
In spite of all this, he has expressed himself in a significant and, on the whole, highly original form. His first theme After Whiteman's band successfully toured Europe, huge hot jazz orchestras in theater pits caught on with other whites, including Fred Waring , Jean Goldkette , and Nathaniel Shilkret.
According to Mario Dunkel, Whiteman's success was based on a "rhetoric of domestication" according to which he had elevated and rendered valuable read "white" a previously inchoate read "black" kind of music.
In , Louis Armstrong joined the Fletcher Henderson dance band for a year, as featured soloist. The original New Orleans style was polyphonic, with theme variation and simultaneous collective improvisation.
Armstrong was a master of his hometown style, but by the time he joined Henderson's band, he was already a trailblazer in a new phase of jazz, with its emphasis on arrangements and soloists.
Armstrong's solos went well beyond the theme-improvisation concept and extemporized on chords, rather than melodies. According to Schuller, by comparison, the solos by Armstrong's bandmates including a young Coleman Hawkins , sounded "stiff, stodgy," with "jerky rhythms and a grey undistinguished tone quality.
Meyer and Arthur Johnston top , compared with Armstrong's solo improvisations below recorded After leaving Henderson's group, Armstrong formed his Hot Five band, where he popularized scat singing.
The s belonged to popular swing big bands, in which some virtuoso soloists became as famous as the band leaders.
Although it was a collective sound, swing also offered individual musicians a chance to "solo" and improvise melodic, thematic solos which could at times be complex "important" music.
Over time, social strictures regarding racial segregation began to relax in America: white bandleaders began to recruit black musicians and black bandleaders white ones.
In the s, Kansas City Jazz as exemplified by tenor saxophonist Lester Young marked the transition from big bands to the bebop influence of the s.
An early s style known as "jumping the blues" or jump blues used small combos, uptempo music and blues chord progressions, drawing on boogie-woogie from the s.
While swing was reaching the height of its popularity, Duke Ellington spent the late s and s developing an innovative musical idiom for his orchestra.
Abandoning the conventions of swing, he experimented with orchestral sounds, harmony, and musical form with complex compositions that still translated well for popular audiences; some of his tunes became hits , and his own popularity spanned from the United States to Europe.
Ellington called his music American Music , rather than jazz , and liked to describe those who impressed him as "beyond category. He also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, such as Juan Tizol 's " Caravan " and " Perdido ", which brought the "Spanish Tinge" to big-band jazz.
Several members of the orchestra remained with him for several decades. The band reached a creative peak in the early s, when Ellington and a small hand-picked group of his composers and arrangers wrote for an orchestra of distinctive voices who displayed tremendous creativity.
It was their live performances which inspired European audiences' interest in jazz, as well as the interest in all things American and therefore exotic which accompanied the economic and political woes of Europe during this time.
British jazz began with a tour by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band in Thereafter jazz became an important element in many leading dance orchestras, and jazz instrumentalists became numerous.
This style entered full swing in France with the Quintette du Hot Club de France , which began in Much of this French jazz was a combination of African-American jazz and the symphonic styles in which French musicians were well-trained; in this, it is easy to see the inspiration taken from Paul Whiteman since his style was also a fusion of the two.
Solos pass from one player to another as guitar and bass form the rhythm section. Some researchers believe Eddie Lang and Joe Venuti pioneered the guitar-violin partnership characteristic of the genre,  which was brought to France after they had been heard live or on Okeh Records in the late s.
The outbreak of World War II marked a turning point for jazz. The swing-era jazz of the previous decade had challenged other popular music as being representative of the nation's culture, with big bands reaching the height of the style's success by the early s; swing acts and big bands traveled with U.
Many of the big bands who were deprived of experienced musicians because of the war effort began to enlist young players who were below the age for conscription, as was the case with saxophonist Stan Getz 's entry in a band as a teenager.
Bebop and subsequent post-war jazz developments featured a wider set of notes , played in more complex patterns and at faster tempos than previous jazz.
Students of race relations in America are generally agreed that the exponents of post-war jazz were determined, with good reason, to present themselves as challenging artists rather than tame entertainers.
With the rise of bebop and the end of the swing era after the war, jazz lost its cachet as pop music. Vocalists of the famous big bands moved on to being marketed and performing as solo pop singers; these included Frank Sinatra , Peggy Lee , Dick Haymes , and Doris Day.
Other younger performers, such as singer Big Joe Turner and saxophonist Louis Jordan , who were discouraged by bebop's increasing complexity pursued more lucrative endeavors in rhythm and blues, jump blues , and eventually rock and roll.
Suddenly jazz was no longer straightforward. There was bebop and its variants, there was the last gasp of swing, there were strange new brews like the progressive jazz of Stan Kenton , and there was a completely new phenomenon called revivalism — the rediscovery of jazz from the past, either on old records or performed live by ageing players brought out of retirement.
From now on it was no good saying that you liked jazz, you had to specify what kind of jazz. And that is the way it has been ever since, only more so.
Today, the word 'jazz' is virtually meaningless without further definition. In the early s, bebop-style performers began to shift jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music".
Divorcing itself from dance music, bebop established itself more as an art form, thus lessening its potential popular and commercial appeal. They were playing all the flatted fifth chords and all the modern harmonies and substitutions and Dizzy Gillespie runs in the trumpet section work.
Two years later I read that that was 'bop' and the beginning of modern jazz Dizzy Gillespie wrote: "People talk about the Hines band being 'the incubator of bop' and the leading exponents of that music ended up in the Hines band.
But people also have the erroneous impression that the music was new. It was not. The music evolved from what went before.
It was the same basic music. The difference was in how you got from here to here to here Since bebop was meant to be listened to, not danced to, it could use faster tempos.
Drumming shifted to a more elusive and explosive style, in which the ride cymbal was used to keep time while the snare and bass drum were used for accents.
This led to a highly syncopated music with a linear rhythmic complexity. Bebop musicians employed several harmonic devices which were not previously typical in jazz, engaging in a more abstracted form of chord-based improvisation.
Bebop scales are traditional scales with an added chromatic passing note;  bebop also uses "passing" chords, substitute chords , and altered chords.
Late bop also moved towards extended forms that represented a departure from pop and show tunes. The harmonic development in bebop is often traced back to a moment experienced by Charlie Parker while performing "Cherokee" at Clark Monroe's Uptown House , New York, in early I could hear it sometimes.
I couldn't play it I was working over 'Cherokee,' and, as I did, I found that by using the higher intervals of a chord as a melody line and backing them with appropriately related changes, I could play the thing I'd been hearing.
It came alive. Bebop musicians eliminated Western-style functional harmony in their music while retaining the strong central tonality of the blues as a basis for drawing upon various African matrices.
Samuel Floyd states that blues was both the bedrock and propelling force of bebop, bringing about a new harmonic conception using extended chord structures that led to unprecedented harmonic and melodic variety, a developed and even more highly syncopated, linear rhythmic complexity and a melodic angularity in which the blue note of the fifth degree was established as an important melodic-harmonic device; and reestablishment of the blues as the primary organizing and functional principle.
While for an outside observer, the harmonic innovations in bebop would appear to be inspired by experiences in Western "serious" music, from Claude Debussy to Arnold Schoenberg , such a scheme cannot be sustained by the evidence from a cognitive approach.
Claude Debussy did have some influence on jazz, for example, on Bix Beiderbecke's piano playing. And it is also true that Duke Ellington adopted and reinterpreted some harmonic devices in European contemporary music.
West Coast jazz would run into such debts as would several forms of cool jazz, but bebop has hardly any such debts in the sense of direct borrowings.
On the contrary, ideologically, bebop was a strong statement of rejection of any kind of eclecticism, propelled by a desire to activate something deeply buried in self.
Bebop then revived tonal-harmonic ideas transmitted through the blues and reconstructed and expanded others in a basically non-Western harmonic approach.
The ultimate significance of all this is that the experiments in jazz during the s brought back to African-American music several structural principles and techniques rooted in African traditions .
These divergences from the jazz mainstream of the time met a divided, sometimes hostile response among fans and musicians, especially swing players who bristled at the new harmonic sounds.
To hostile critics, bebop seemed filled with "racing, nervous phrases". The general consensus among musicians and musicologists is that the first original jazz piece to be overtly based in clave was "Tanga" , composed by Cuban-born Mario Bauza and recorded by Machito and his Afro-Cubans in New York City.
This was the birth of Afro-Cuban jazz. The use of clave brought the African timeline , or key pattern , into jazz.
Music organized around key patterns convey a two-celled binary structure, which is a complex level of African cross-rhythm. The harmonic progression can begin on either side of clave, and the harmonic "one" is always understood to be "one".
If the progression begins on the "three-side" of clave, it is said to be in 3—2 clave shown below. If the progression begins on the "two-side", it is in 2—3 clave.
Gillespie and Pozo's brief collaboration produced some of the most enduring Afro-Cuban jazz standards. According to Gillespie, Pozo composed the layered, contrapuntal guajeos Afro-Cuban ostinatos of the A section and the introduction, while Gillespie wrote the bridge.
Gillespie recounted: "If I'd let it go like [Chano] wanted it, it would have been strictly Afro-Cuban all the way.
There wouldn't have been a bridge. I thought I was writing an eight-bar bridge, but I had to keep going and ended up writing a sixteen-bar bridge.
Gillespie's collaboration with Pozo brought specific African-based rhythms into bebop. While pushing the boundaries of harmonic improvisation, cu-bop also drew from African rhythm.
Jazz arrangements with a Latin A section and a swung B section, with all choruses swung during solos, became common practice with many Latin tunes of the jazz standard repertoire.
Cuban percussionist Mongo Santamaria first recorded his composition " Afro Blue " in We found 19 results for you in New Orleans Clear all filters.
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During the NBA draft , the Jazz used their first-round pick, seventh overall, to choose Thurl Bailey , and later took Bob Hansen in the third round, 54th overall.
However, fortunes on the court improved, with a healthy Dantley, Jeff Wilkins , and rookie Bailey at the forward positions, Eaton and Rich Kelley jointly manning the post, Green and Griffith at the guards, and Drew adding 17 points per game off the bench.
They went 45—37 and won the Midwest Division , the first winning season and division championship in team history.
The Jazz advanced to the playoffs, defeating the Denver Nuggets 3—2 in the first round, and moving on to play the Phoenix Suns in the second round.
Despite having home court advantage in the best-of-seven series, the Jazz lost to the more experienced Suns, 4—2. Jazz fans were not happy when the team picked an unknown guard in the first round of the NBA draft , John Stockton.
The Jazz fans on hand for the draft party booed the selection. The —85 season saw the emergence of Mark Eaton as a defensive force. Eaton averaged 5.
The Jazz prevailed in the series, 3—2, and advanced to the second round, losing the series to the high-scoring Denver Nuggets , 4—1. The team's perennial financial woes and instability were somewhat stabilized during April , when auto dealer Larry H.
Battistone had been seeking to move the team. However, starter Darrell Griffith missed the season with a stress fracture, and the Jazz hovered around.
Adrian Dantley missed the postseason, and the Jazz lost in the first round to the Dallas Mavericks , 3—1.
During the off-season, Battistone was approached to sell the team to Marv Wolfenson and Harvey Ratner, who would have moved the team to Minneapolis.
Larry Miller did not want to sell the team, but because of contractual language in his agreement with Battistone, could have been bought out by the new owners if he had refused to sell.
The —87 season was one of change. Adrian Dantley, the team's star player who had carried them through the early years in Utah, was traded to Detroit for Kelly Tripucka , who ended up splitting time with Thurl Bailey.
Darrell Griffith, back from injuries that caused him to miss the —86 season, lost his starter spot at guard to Bob Hansen.
Stockton warranted more time at the point guard position. Despite all these changes, the team finished 44—38 before losing to the Golden State Warriors in the first round of the playoffs.
For the —88 season, Stockton took over for Rickey Green as the starting point guard, and Malone established himself as one of the better power forwards in the league.
The team finished 47—35 and defeated Portland, 3—1, in the first round, earning a second-round matchup with the reigning NBA champions, the Los Angeles Lakers.
The Jazz lost Games 4 and 5, but won Game 6, —80, tying the series 3—3. In the decisive Game 7, the Lakers won — During the —89 season, Frank Layden stepped down as head coach of the Jazz after the first 17 games, and was replaced by Jerry Sloan.
The Jazz won 51 games and the Midwest Division championship as they grew better overall. Malone and Stockton, as well as Mark Eaton, were the leaders of the team and also All-Star selections.
Eaton won Defensive Player of the Year for the second time, and it appeared the Jazz were ready to take the next step toward contending for an NBA title, after having pushed the Lakers to seven games in the Western Conference semifinals the previous season.
However, the second-seeded Jazz were eliminated in the first round in three games by the seventh-seeded Golden State Warriors.
The following year, —90, the Jazz made some changes. Thurl Bailey, who was relied on for 19 points per game the previous season, saw his playing time reduced in favor of rookie Blue Edwards , who played a prominent role with the team.
The result was the best win-loss mark in team history, as the Jazz finished 55—27 , second in the division to the San Antonio Spurs 56— Malone had his best season statistically, averaging The Suns defeated the Jazz 3 games to 2.
Again, the Jazz were left with questions as to how they could do so well in the regular season but fail to advance in the playoffs.
For the —91 season, the Jazz made another move to improve the team by executing a three-way trade that brought shooting guard Jeff Malone to Utah from the Washington Bullets , while Eric Leckner and Bob Hansen were sent from Utah to the Sacramento Kings and Pervis Ellison going from Sacramento to Washington.
The Jazz began the season 22—15 before going 27—8 in January and February, with new addition Jeff Malone averaging The Jazz finished 54—28, second in the division to San Antonio by a game, similar to their division finish the prior year.
In the playoffs, they met the Phoenix Suns for the second year in a row. Game 1 was a blowout Utah win, in Phoenix, —90, which set the tone for the series, as Utah eliminated the Suns 3—1, earning a second round matchup with the Portland Trail Blazers, the defending Western Conference champions.
The —92 season proved to be the most successful in team history to that time. The Jazz moved to the Delta Center , a state-of-the art arena that featured a seating capacity of 19, The new venue was a considerable improvement over the Salt Palace, which seated just over 12, and lacked luxury suites and retail space.
Early in the year, a trade brought Tyrone Corbin , a tough defensive forward, from Minnesota in exchange for fan-favorite Thurl Bailey.
The Jazz went 55—27 and won the Midwest Division championship for the first time since In the playoffs, the Jazz defeated the Los Angeles Clippers 3—2 in the first round, then beat the Seattle SuperSonics in the second round, 4—1, to advance to the Western Conference Finals for the first time, where they again faced and lost to Portland, this time 4—2.
The —93 season was a letdown, as the team slumped to 47—35 and third place in the division. The center position, manned by defensive workhorse Mark Eaton for most of the past decade, became suspect as Eaton struggled with injuries and age.
In the playoffs, the Jazz lost to Seattle in the first round, 3—2. Hornacek meshed well with Stockton, and the Jazz improved to 53— Robinson had averaged In the —95 season, the Jazz had significant depth and talent and were expected to make a serious run for the championship.
However, they lost starter Spencer 34 games into the season with a ruptured Achilles tendon. Despite this setback, the Jazz finished 60—22 before again losing to Houston in the playoffs, 3—2, in the first round.
Greg Ostertag was added to the team for the —96 season. The Jazz went 55—27, and reached the Conference Finals for the third time in history, nearly overcoming 3—1 series deficit before eventually succumbing to Seattle, 4—3.
In the next two seasons, the Jazz were finally able to capitalize on regular season success. In —97 , the Jazz had the best record in franchise history 64—18 , won the Midwest Division and finished with the best record in the Western Conference.
The Jazz then met Michael Jordan and the Chicago Bulls in the Finals, losing the series 4—2, with the last two games decided in the final seconds scores of 90—88 and 90— During the off-season, the Jazz made no changes to the roster.
As the —98 season neared, they were expected to be contenders for the championship again. However, Stockton suffered a serious knee injury before the season, and missed the first 18 games, in which the Jazz went 11—7.
On February 17, at the NBA trade deadline, the Jazz consummated a trade with the Orlando Magic, to acquire center Rony Seikaly in an attempt to bolster their center rotation.
However, Seikaly refused to report within the mandated 48 hours required by NBA rules. Rumors had Seikaly with a serious foot injury, however Seikaly insisted the Jazz torpedoed the deal and that he wanted to play for them; however Seikaly's refusal to report effectively killed the deal.
The Jazz played better after Stockton returned from his early-season injury. The team went 51—13 over the last 64 games, to finish at 62—20, and won the Midwest Division and received home-court advantage for the playoffs.
In the playoffs, the Jazz beat Houston 3—2, and San Antonio 4—1, to advance to the Western Conference Finals for the third straight year.
The Jazz set the tone for the series with a win in Game 1, — Game 2, a 99—95 Jazz victory, and Games 3 and 4 in Los Angeles were decided by an average of 7.
However, the Bulls overcame a slow start to win Game 2, 93—88, easily took Game 3, 96—54, and won Game 4, 86—82, to lead the series 3—1.
The Jazz fought back and won Game 5 on the road, 83—81, to trail 3—2 in the series, with Game 6 and a Game 7 if needed in Salt Lake City.
The Jazz held a lead in most of Game 6, but the Bulls rallied, and in the last seconds of the game, Michael Jordan stole the ball from Malone on the final Jazz possession and then made a famous jump shot to win the game, 87—86, and the series for Chicago, 4—2.
In the season , shortened to 50 games due to a lockout , the Jazz finished 37—13, tied with the Spurs for the best record in the league.
They defeated the Sacramento Kings in five games in the first round of the playoffs. However, they lost in the second round of the playoffs to the Portland Trail Blazers.
Despite yet another disappointment, Malone was awarded his second MVP. During the — season, the Jazz finished 55—27 and won the Midwest Division but again struggled in the postseason , and lost to the Portland Trail Blazers in the second round.
In the off-season, Hornacek retired and Howard Eisley was traded in a four-team deal that brought in Donyell Marshall. In the —01 season, the Jazz posted a 53—29 record, but lost in the playoffs, surrendering a 2—0 series lead in the first round of the playoffs to the Dallas Mavericks to lose the series 3—2.
This was their earliest exit from the playoffs since the —95 season. In the —02 season, Andrei Kirilenko made his rookie debut, averaging The team started the season slowly, with a record of 16—15 over the first two months, and finished 12—13 to go 44—38 overall.
They lost to the Sacramento Kings 3—1 in the first round of the playoffs. Prior to the —03 season, Marshall and Russell moved on to other teams.
Matt Harpring was brought over from the Philadelphia 76ers , and took over the starting forward spot next to Malone, averaging The Jazz approached 50 wins going into the playoffs , but ended up falling short with a record of 47— They faced the Sacramento Kings in the playoffs again, and lost in a five-game first round series, 4—1.
After the season, the end of an era came as Stockton retired, and Malone left as a free agent to join the Los Angeles Lakers.
Without Malone and Stockton, the faces of the Jazz franchise, the team lacked foundation as it went into the —04 season. The team featured several unheralded players who emerged as key contributors, including Kirilenko, Raja Bell , and Carlos Arroyo.
In particular, Kirilenko demonstrated versatility on both offense and defense and earned a spot in the All-Star Game. The Jazz missed the playoffs by one game to the Denver Nuggets , ending a streak of 20 consecutive seasons in the playoffs.
During the off-season, the team made moves to change the roster; they acquired Carlos Boozer and Mehmet Okur as free agents and re-signed Carlos Arroyo and Gordan Giricek to extensions.
When healthy, Boozer averaged The Jazz ended the —05 season 26—56, their worst since the —82 season. In summer , the Jazz continued to change their roster by trading three draft picks to acquire the number 3 overall pick, which they used to select Deron Williams.
The —06 season was injury-plagued before it started; Boozer missed the first 49 games and Gordan Giricek and Kirilenko both missed significant time due to injuries.
Okur and Kirilenko, however, showed consistently good play, and Williams, despite a mid-season slump, was still an integral piece of the Jazz offense.
However, team owner Larry Miller expressed displeasure with the team's effort during the season. The Jazz ended the season 41—41, three games out of the playoffs.
Ostertag retired at the end of the season, having spent 10 of his 11 NBA seasons with the Jazz. Several young players were traded to the Golden State Warriors for Derek Fisher , which give the Jazz frontcourt a veteran point guard.
The Jazz were heralded by several major sports websites for drafting well and making good off-season moves. During the —07 season, the Jazz improved considerably compared to the previous few seasons, finishing with a 51—31 record.
Boozer was selected as an All-Star for the first time though he missed the game due to a minor injury and center Mehmet Okur was selected to the All-Star game as well.
Deron Williams finished third in the league in assists per game with 9. The team also developed a deep bench; in the 10 games that Boozer and Okur the two leading scorers missed, the team went 8—2.
Millsap became a competent backup to Boozer, averaging 8. The Jazz faced the Houston Rockets in the first round, a match-up of number 4 and number 5 seeds Utah was seeded higher due to winning the Northwest Division, but Houston had a 52—30 record opposed to Utah's 51—31, giving them home court advantage in the series.
It was a physical, close-fought match-up, with each of the first six games being won by the home team. The Jazz broke this trend in the seventh game, and beat the Rockets —99 in Houston.
The Jazz went on to face the eighth-seeded Golden State Warriors , who were coming off a historic upset of the number 1-seeded Dallas Mavericks.
However, the Jazz easily handled the Warriors, and won the series 4—1. The Jazz then faced the San Antonio Spurs in the Western Conference finals, but lost to the more experienced Spurs, 4 games to 1 in the series.
They selected Morris Almond in the first round, although ultimately they made few lineup changes. The most significant move [ according to whom? Fisher had become a fan favorite due to his strong play, and also a sympathetic one due to his daughter's well-publicized battle with a rare form of eye cancer.
Fisher moved to Los Angeles during the off-season to be closer to better care for his daughter, and later signed with the Los Angeles Lakers.
Controversy arose after Kirilenko led his Russian national team to a win in EuroBasket the European championship , a tournament in which he was named MVP.
After that, Kirilenko posted on a blog that he wished to be traded from the Jazz and would be willing to walk away from his contract.
During the —08 season , after a trade that sent Gordan Giricek to the Philadelphia 76ers in exchange for Kyle Korver , the Jazz had a record-tying game home winning streak and improved on the road after a rough December.
Despite the off-season controversy and trade talk, Kirilenko elevated his play, improving all stats from the previous season, and seemed content with his new role as a defender and a facilitator as opposed to a scorer.
The Jazz finished the regular season fifth-best in the Western Conference with a 54—28 record. The Jazz sold out 46 of 47 home games including playoffs during the year, and possessed a 37—4 home regular season record; that was, however, offset by a sub-par road win-loss record.
The Jazz again faced the Houston Rockets in the first round of the playoffs, this time as a number 4 seed although the Rockets possessed home-court advantage due to a better record.
After splitting the next two games, the Jazz beat the Rockets —91 in game 6, placing them into a second-round match-up with the number 1 seeded Los Angeles Lakers , their first postseason meeting since the Western Conference finals.
Utah lost games 1 and 2 in Los Angeles. However the Jazz held up their great home win record and defeated Los Angeles in Games 3 and 4.
The Jazz lost game 5 in Los Angeles and were eliminated in Game 6. The Jazz made no major moves during the off-season. The —09 season was difficult for the Jazz as they struggled with injuries that disrupted team chemistry, and although they were again nearly unstoppable at home, they possessed a poor road record.
Utah's top three players all missed significant time due to sickness or injury; Williams missed 13 of the first 15 games, Boozer missed more than half of the season, and Okur missed sporadic time due to both injury and his father's sickness that led him to travel to his native Turkey early in the season.
On February 20, , Jazz owner Larry H. Miller died of complications from diabetes. The Jazz finished with a 48—34 record, slipping to No. The season was the last for long-time radio and former TV announcer Hot Rod Hundley , who announced his retirement after being with the Jazz for their entire history 35 years.
Despite the disappointment, Williams proved to be one of the elite point guards in the league, averaging Veteran Matt Harpring retired, citing consistent injuries sustained from his physical playing style.
Rumors circulated that Boozer wanted a trade,  fueled by whisperings that the Jazz were shopping him after he chose to opt into the last year of his contract; however, the team stated publicly that they did not seek to trade him.
Boozer remained with the team heading into the —10 season. The Jazz also added rookie Wesley Matthews to the lineup after an impressive training camp.
As the —10 season began, the Jazz started 19— Several trades were made by the team, one that sent Maynor and the contract of the retired Harpring to the Oklahoma City Thunder and another that sent starter Ronnie Brewer to the Memphis Grizzlies at mid-season, a trade which was openly criticized by Williams.
Also, Williams was selected to play in the All-Star Game for the first time, and after a controversial off-season, Boozer played better than the year prior, averaging He suggested that he would be happy to stay with Utah long-term.
In a tight Western Conference, the Jazz finished 53—29 and lost the division in a tiebreaker with the Denver Nuggets , ending with the No.
Kirilenko, who had missed 13 of the last 15 games of the season due to an injury, re-aggravated the injury the day before the first game of the playoffs and missed the first round, while Okur tore his Achilles tendon in the first game and missed the rest of the playoffs.
Despite the injuries, the Jazz played well enough to defeat Denver 4—2 in the series. The Jazz were then eliminated by the Los Angeles Lakers for the third year in a row, being swept 4—0 the first four-game sweep in Jazz history.
Less than a week after the Boozer loss, the Jazz traded Kosta Koufos and two future first-round picks to Minnesota for Al Jefferson , using the trade exception from the Boozer deal to receive Jefferson's contract without exceeding the salary cap.
On June 15, , the Jazz unveiled a new color scheme and logo, which represented a return to the old 'music note' logo. The team unveiled new uniforms on August The offer entitled Utah to match any offer that Fesenko accepted from another team, whether signed or not.
Fesenko signed the offer on September 27, , the day before training camp began. The —11 season began on a positive note, as the team went undefeated 8—0 in the preseason, and in mid-January, they were 27—13 and seemed well on their way to another winning season, had that pace continued.
However, over the next 14 games, Utah went 4— On February 10, , with the team record at 31—23 after a loss to the Chicago Bulls , head coach Jerry Sloan resigned, along with assistant Phil Johnson.
Another of Sloan's assistants, Tyrone Corbin , was named the new head coach, while Scott Layden, the other assistant, remained as well.
At the time of his departure, Sloan was the longest-tenured coach in the NBA. A week later, the Jazz hired former Jazz player Jeff Hornacek as an assistant coach.
It was rumored that Williams got into a shouting match with head coach Sloan during a game against the Chicago Bulls, which preceded Sloan's resignation and eventually, the Jazz's decision to trade Williams.