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Erfurt's cityscape features a medieval core of narrow, curved alleys in the centre surrounded by a belt of Gründerzeit architecture, created between and In , the city's fortifications were demolished and it became possible to build houses in the area in front of the former city walls.
In the following years, Erfurt saw a construction boom. In the northern area districts Andreasvorstadt, Johannesvorstadt and Ilversgehofen tenements for the factory workers were built whilst the eastern area Krämpfervorstadt and Daberstedt featured apartments for white-collar workers and clerks and the southwestern part Löbervorstadt and Brühlervorstadt with its beautiful valley landscape saw the construction of villas and mansions of rich factory owners and notables.
During the interwar period, some settlements in Bauhaus style were realized, often as housing cooperatives. After World War II and over the whole GDR period, housing shortages remained a problem even though the government started a big apartment construction programme.
Between and large Plattenbau settlements with high-rise blocks on the northern for 50, inhabitants and southeastern for 40, inhabitants periphery were constructed.
After reunification the renovation of old houses in city centre and the Gründerzeit areas was a big issue. The federal government granted substantial subsidies, so that many houses could be restored.
This is one reason why the centre today offers a mixture of medieval, Baroque and Neoclassical architecture as well as buildings from the last years.
Public green spaces are located along Gera river and in several parks like the Stadtpark , the Nordpark and the Südpark.
The city centre has about 25 churches and monasteries, most of them in Gothic style, some also in Romanesque style or a mixture of Romanesque and Gothic elements, and a few in later styles.
The various steeples characterize the medieval centre and led to one of Erfurt's nicknames as the "Thuringian Rome".
It was used until when the Jewish community was destroyed in a pogrom known as the Erfurt Massacre. The building had many other uses since then.
It was conserved in the s and in it became a museum of Jewish history. It has been tentatively listed but a final decision has not yet been made.
As religious freedom was granted in the 19th century, some Jews returned to Erfurt. They built their synagogue on the banks of the Gera river and used it from until The neoclassical building is known as the Kleine Synagoge Small Synagogue.
Today it is used an events centre. It is also open to visitors. This moorish style building was destroyed during nationwide Nazi riots, known as Kristallnacht on 9—10 November In the land which the Great Synagogue had occupied was returned to the Jewish community and they built their current place of worship, the Neue Synagoge New Synagogue which opened in It was the only synagogue building erected under communist rule in East Germany.
Besides the religious buildings there is a lot of historic secular architecture in Erfurt, mostly concentrated in the city centre, but some 19th- and 20th-century buildings are located on the outskirts.
From until the old town of Erfurt was encircled by a fortified wall. About this was extended to run around the western side of Petersberg hill, enclosing it within the city boundaries.
The threat to the city from its Saxon neighbours and from Bavaria was no longer present, so it was decided to dismantle the city walls.
Only a few remnants remain today. There is also a small restored part of the wall in the Brühler Garten, behind the Catholic orphanage.
Only one of the wall's fortified towers was left standing, on Boyneburgufer, but this was destroyed in an air raid in The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest and best preserved city fortresses in Europe, covering an area of 36 hectares in the north-west of the city centre.
It was built from on Petersberg hill and was in military use until Since , it has been significantly restored and is now open to the public as an historic site.
Today, it houses the German horticulture museum. Between and , a belt of Gründerzeit architecture emerged around the city centre. The "Mühlenviertel" "mill quarter" , is an area of beautiful Art Nouveau apartment buildings, cobblestone streets and street trees just to the north of the old city, in the vicinity of Nord Park, bordered by the Gera river on its east side.
The Schmale Gera stream runs through the area. In the Middle Ages numerous small enterprises using the power of water mills occupied the area, hence the name "Mühlenviertel", with street names such as Waidmühlenweg woad, or indigo, mill way , Storchmühlenweg stork mill way and Papiermühlenweg paper mill way.
A new use has not been found yet, but the area is sometimes used as a location in movie productions because of its atmosphere.
The current international glass and steel architecture is dominant among most larger new buildings like the Federal Labour Court of Germany , the new opera house , the new main station , the university library, the Erfurt Messe convention centre and the Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann ice rink.
Gründerzeit tenements in Johannesvorstadt district. Farming has a great tradition in Erfurt: the cultivation of woad made the city rich during the Middle Ages.
Today, horticulture and the production of flower seeds is still an important business in Erfurt. There is also growing of fruits like apples, strawberries and sweet cherries , vegetables e.
Industrialization in Erfurt started around Until World War I, many factories were founded in different sectors like engine building, shoes, guns, malt and later electro-technics, so that there was no industrial monoculture in the city.
After , the companies were nationalized by the GDR government, which led to the decline of some of them. After reunification, nearly all factories were closed, either because they failed to successfully adopt to a free market economy or because the German government sold them to west German businessmen who closed them to avoid competition to their own enterprises.
It still took a long time before the economic situation stabilized around Since this time, unemployment has decreased and overall, new jobs were created.
Today, there are many small and medium-sized companies in Erfurt with electro-technics, semiconductors and photovoltaics in focus. Engine production, food production, the Braugold brewery, and Born Feinkost , a producer of Thuringian mustard, remain important industries.
Erfurt is an Oberzentrum which means "supra-centre" according to Central place theory in German regional planning. Such centres are always hubs of service businesses and public services like hospitals, universities, research, trade fairs, retail etc.
Additionally, Erfurt is the capital of the federal state of Thuringia, so that there are many institutions of administration like all the Thuringian state ministries and some nationwide authorities.
Typical for Erfurt are the logistic business with many distribution centres of big companies, the Erfurt Trade Fair and the media sector with KiKa and MDR as public broadcast stations.
A growing industry is tourism, due to the various historical sights of Erfurt. There are 4, hotel beds and in , overnight visitors spent a total of , nights in hotels.
Nevertheless, most tourists are one-day visitors from Germany. The Christmas Market in December attracts some 2,, visitors each year.
In freight transport there is an intermodal terminal in the district of Vieselbach Güterverkehrszentrum, GVZ with connections to rail and the autobahn.
Together with the east tangent both motorways form a circle road around the city and lead the interregional traffic around the centre. Whereas the A 4 was built in the s, the A 71 came into being after the reunification in the s and s.
Its southern part to Coburg was annulled when A 71 was finished in this section, the A 71 now effectively serves as B 4.
Within the circle road, B 7 and B 4 are also annulled, so that the city government has to pay for maintenance instead of the German federal government.
The access to the city is restricted as Umweltzone since for some vehicles. Large parts of the inner city are a pedestrian area which can not be reached by car except for residents.
The Erfurt public transport system is marked by the area-wide Erfurt Stadtbahn light rail network, established as a tram system in , upgraded to a light rail Stadtbahn system in ,  and continually expanded and upgraded through the s.
Today, there are six Stadtbahn lines running every ten minutes on every light rail route. Additionally, Erfurt operates a bus system, which connects the sparsely populated outer districts of the region to the city center.
Trolleybuses were in service in Erfurt from until , but are no longer in service. It is linked to the central train station via Stadtbahn tram.
It was significantly extended in the s, with flights mostly to Mediterranean holiday destinations and to London during the peak Christmas market tourist season.
Biking is becoming increasingly popular since construction of high quality cycle tracks began in the s. There are cycle lanes for general commuting within Erfurt city.
Long-distance trails, such as the Gera track and the Radweg Thüringer Städtekette Thuringian cities trail , connect points of tourist interest.
The former runs along the Gera river valley from the Thuringian forest to the river Unstrut ; the latter follows the medieval Via Regia from Eisenach to Altenburg via Gotha , Erfurt, Weimar , and Jena.
The Rennsteig Cycle Way was opened in This designated high-grade hiking and bike trail runs along the ridge of the Thuringian Central Uplands.
After reunification, the educational system was reorganized. The University of Erfurt , founded in  and closed in , was refounded in with a focus on social sciences, modern languages, humanities and teacher training.
Today there are approximately 6, students working within four faculties, the Max Weber Center for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, and three academic research institutes.
The Fachhochschule Erfurt , is a university of applied sciences , founded in , which offers a combination of academic training and practical experience in subjects such as social work and social pedagogy, business studies, and engineering.
There are nearly 5, students in six faculties, of which the faculty of landscaping and horticulture has a national reputation. It merged with the former Adam-Ries-Fachhochschule in The buildings are now part of a World Heritage Site and are today used by the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar , which teaches design, arts, media and technology related subjects.
Furthermore, there are eight Gymnasien , six state-owned, one Catholic and one Protestant. One of the state-owned schools is a Sportgymnasium , an elite boarding school for young talents in athletics, swimming, ice skating or football.
Another state-owned school, Albert Schweitzer Gymnasium , offers a focus in sciences as an elite boarding school in addition to the common curriculum.
The German national public television children's channel KiKa is based in Erfurt. MDR, Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk , a radio and television company, has a broadcast centre and studios in Erfurt.
The Thüringer Allgemeine is a statewide newspaper that is headquartered in the city. The first freely elected mayor after German reunification was Manfred Ruge of the Christian Democratic Union , who served from to The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 April , with a runoff held on 29 April, and the results were as follows:.
Erfurt is twinned with: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Capital of Thuringia, Germany.
Place in Thuringia, Germany. Coat of arms. Location of Erfurt within Thuringia. See also: Timeline of Erfurt.
Main article: Principality of Erfurt. See also: List of people from Erfurt. Deutsches Gartenbaumuseum. Museum für Thüringer Volkskunde. Christmas market at Domplatz.
Post office at Anger. GDR architecture in Johannesplatz district. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. There are seven gold coins known to exist bearing the effigy of Queen Christina: a unique five ducat,  and six 10 ducat specimen.
Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik in German. August Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th ed.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Das Aussprachewörterbuch. Retrieved 22 June RGZM in German. Retrieved 28 September Insoll, Timothy ed.
The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Figurines. Oxford University Press: Archived from the original PDF on 28 September Bonifatius: Heidenopfer, Christuskreuz, Eichenkult in German.
Stadtverwaltung Erfurt. Archäologie in Deutschland in German. Web Archive. Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 4 September Standard Catalog of World Gold Coins — present 6 ed.
Retrieved 17 January Februar at German Wikisource. Napoleon's Conquest of Prussia Lionel Leventhal. The Napoleonic Wars Data Book.
Erfurt Stadtverwaltung [Erfurt city administration]. Retrieved 2 January Napoleon's Fürstenkongress Erfurt in German.
Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 23 January Bei dieser Gelegenheit wurde auch die alte Burgkapelle demoliert und aus den verkauften Baumaterialien die Arbeiter bezahlt, die beim Schatzgraben hilfreiche Hand geleistet hatten.
On that occasion the old chapel was demolished, and the workers who had helped dig for treasure were paid from the sale of the building materials.
Thüringer Naturbrief. Retrieved 3 January Sutton Verlag. Meline, Cans et Compagnie. As a result of a capitulation signed on 20 December, the French general d'Alton withdrew to the two forts of Petersberg and Cyriaksburg, and the town was handed over to the Prussians on 6 January Vom 21sten Oktober bis zum 8ten Januar In einem Briefe als ein Journal abgefasst, und an einen vertrauten Freund abgesendet.
Bei Gelegenheit der 25jährigen Jubelfeier neu abgedruckt [ Concise news of the siege, blockade and entry of the Royal Prussian troops into Erfurt.
From 21 October to 8 January In a letter as a journal written and sent to a trusted friend. Reprinted on the occasion of the 25th jubilee ], Erfurt.
Auf dem Anger kommt es zu Jubelszenen. Der Napoleon-Obelisk wird zerstört. On the Anger this leads to scenes of jubilation.
The Napoleon obelisk is destroyed. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel Bibcode : MetZe.. Retrieved 22 January Earth Syst. Bibcode : HESS Page Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 31 January Cambridge University Press, Dumont Buchverlag, p.
Old synagogue. Jewish Life in Erfurt. Margaretha Reichard Haus. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 May Famous Individuals.
Small synagogue. Great synagogue. New synagogue. Stadtbefestigung einst und jetzt. Tagungsband: Wissenschaftliches Kolloquim zum Jahrestages der Grundsteinlegung der Zitadelle Petersberg vom Mai bis 31 Mai Universität Erfurt.
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